ReactJS Forms

In React, forms are used to capture and handle user input. They allow users to interact with your application by providing input through various form elements such as text fields, checkboxes, radio buttons, select dropdowns, and more. React provides a powerful and flexible way to handle forms and manage form data using its component-based architecture.

Creating a Form

To create a form in React, you typically start by creating a form component. This component will hold the form's state and handle user input. You can create a form component using either the class component or functional component approach.

Form Elements

React provides several built-in form elements that you can use to capture different types of user input. These elements include <input>, <textarea>, <select>, and more. Each form element has its specific attributes and event handlers that allow you to capture and handle user input effectively.

Controlled Components

In React, it is a common pattern to create controlled components for form elements. A controlled component is a form element whose value is controlled by React's state. By binding the value of a form element to a state variable and updating that variable in response to user input, you can maintain full control over the form's state and easily handle changes.

Handling User Input

To handle user input in a React form, you need to attach event handlers to the form elements. React provides event handlers such as onChange, onSubmit, onBlur, and more. By defining these event handlers and updating the state accordingly, you can capture user input and respond to it in real-time.

Form Validation

Validating user input is an essential aspect of forms. React provides various ways to implement form validation. You can perform validation checks either on form submission or during user input using event handlers like onBlur or onChange. By applying validation rules to the form's input values, you can ensure that the data entered by the user meets specific criteria.

Form Submission

When a user submits a form, you need to handle the form submission event. In React, you can attach an onSubmit event handler to the <form> element. Inside the event handler, you can prevent the default form submission behavior using event.preventDefault() to prevent the page from reloading. You can then access the form data, perform additional validation or processing, and handle the submission accordingly.

Form Libraries

React offers several form libraries such as Formik, React Hook Form, and Final Form that provide additional functionality and simplify the process of handling complex forms. These libraries offer features like form validation, form state management, form field components, and more. They can be beneficial when dealing with larger forms or when you require advanced form handling capabilities.

How to Create a Basic Form in React

To create a basic form in React, follow these steps:

1. Create a new React component for the form

  • Use the class or function syntax to define your component.
  • Import the necessary React dependencies.

2. Set up the initial form structure using HTML form elements

  • Use the <form> element to wrap your form inputs.
  • Add appropriate name and id attributes to each input field.
  • Include a submit button inside the form.

3. Handle form submission using an event handler

  • Attach an onSubmit event handler to the <form> element.
  • Inside the event handler function, prevent the default form submission behavior using event.preventDefault().
  • Retrieve the form data using and process it as needed.

4. Capture and display user input

  • Create state variables using React's useState hook or the this.state approach for class components.
  • Attach onChange event handlers to each input field to capture user input and update the corresponding state variables.
  • Display the captured input within the component or perform additional actions based on user input.

Handling Form Input

Here, we will discuss how to handle different types of form inputs in React.

1. Text Inputs

  • Use the <input type="text"> element for single-line text inputs.
  • Capture user input using and update the state accordingly.

2. Select Inputs

  • Use the <select> element to create dropdown menus.
  • Populate the dropdown options using <option> elements.
  • Capture the selected value using and update the state.

3. Radio Buttons and Checkboxes

  • Use the <input type="radio"> and <input type="checkbox"> elements for radio buttons and checkboxes, respectively.
  • Set the name attribute to group related radio buttons or checkboxes.
  • Capture the selected value(s) using or and update the state.

4. File Uploads

  • Use the <input type="file"> element to enable file uploads.
  • Handle the file(s) using the property and process them as needed.

Form Validation

In this section, we'll explore form validation techniques in React.

1. Built-in HTML Validation

  • Utilize HTML's built-in form validation attributes such as required, pattern, min, max, etc.
  • Customize validation messages using the setCustomValidity method.

2. Custom Validation

  • Implement custom validation logic using JavaScript functions.
  • Attach onBlur or onChange event handlers to trigger the validation checks.
  • Update the state with validation errors or flags.

3. Displaying Validation Errors

  • Conditionally render error messages based on the validation state.
  • Style error messages to make them noticeable to the user.

Managing Form State

Here, we'll learn how to manage form state in React.

1. Controlled Components

  • Use controlled components by binding form inputs to state variables.
  • Update the state variables in response to user input changes.
  • Reflect the state values in the form inputs.

2. Uncontrolled Components

  • Utilize uncontrolled components for simpler forms.
  • Access the form input values using ref objects.
  • Retrieve the values when needed.

3. Form Reset

  • Implement a form reset functionality to restore the initial form state.
  • Use the reset() method on the form element or update the state variables to their initial values.

Form Submission and AJAX Requests

Now let’s learn about form submission and handling AJAX requests in React.

1. Handle form submission using an event handler

  • Attach an onSubmit event handler to the <form> element.
  • Prevent the default form submission behavior using event.preventDefault().

2. Validate form data before making an AJAX request

  • Validate the form data either on form submission or during user input.
  • Display validation errors if necessary.

3. Perform the AJAX request and handle success or error responses

  • Use libraries like Axios or the Fetch API to make AJAX requests.
  • Handle success and error responses appropriately, such as displaying messages or redirecting.

Remember, forms play a crucial role in web applications, and React provides powerful tools and techniques to handle them efficiently.

With this knowledge, you can build interactive and user-friendly forms in your React applications.

Keep practicing and exploring different scenarios to further enhance your skills.

In the next tutorial, we are going to learn about React Router.


In React, you can handle form submission by attaching an event handler function to the form's onSubmit event. This function can be defined within your component and should handle any necessary data processing or API calls. Here's an example:

import React, { useState } from 'react';

function MyForm() {
  const [formData, setFormData] = useState({});

  const handleSubmit = (event) => {
    // Process and handle form data here

  const handleChange = (event) => {
    setFormData({ ...formData, []: });

  return (
    <form onSubmit={handleSubmit}>
      <input type="text" name="username" onChange={handleChange} />
      <input type="password" name="password" onChange={handleChange} />
      <button type="submit">Submit</button>

In this example, the handleSubmit function is called when the form is submitted. It prevents the default form submission behavior, allowing you to handle the form data and perform any necessary actions.

To handle form input changes in React, you can attach an event handler function to the onChange event of each form input element. This function can update the component's state or store the form data in any preferred way. In the previous example, the handleChange function updates the formData state by merging the new input value with the existing form data.

By capturing and updating the input values as they change, React ensures that the form data is always up to date and available for submission or further processing.

Yes, you can perform form validation in React by leveraging the component's state and conditional rendering. You can add validation rules to the form inputs and display error messages or styles based on the validation results. React allows you to implement custom validation logic or use existing libraries and packages for more complex validation scenarios.

By updating the state with the validation results and rendering appropriate feedback, you can guide users in filling out the form correctly and prevent invalid submissions. You can also combine form validation with form submission handling to ensure both data correctness and integrity.