XHTML is an abbreviation for Extensible HyperText Markup Language. It is the next stage in the evolution of the internet. The World Wide Web Consortium created XHTML (W3C). It aids web developers in their move from HTML to XML. Using XHTML, developers may enter the XML world with all of its advantages while remaining assured about the content's backward and future compatibility.
The first document type in the XHTML family, XHTML 1.0, was recommended by the W3C on January 26, 2000. W3c recommended XHTML 1.1 on May 31, 2001. The XHTML5 specification is a standard that is used to create an XML adaption of the HTML5 specification.
The XHTML documents are divided into three sections, which are as follows:
- doctype: It is used to specify a DTD.
- head: The title and other properties are declared in the head section.
- body: The content of web pages is included within the body tag. It has a lot of tags.
It is important to include a DTD (Document Type Definition) declaration when creating an XHTML web page. DTDs are classified into three categories, which are explained further below:
- Transitional DTD
- Strict DTD
- Frameset DTD
It is supported by older browsers that do not have built-in support for cascading style sheets. Several attributes containing the body tag are not permitted in strict DTD.
When an XHTML page has solely markup language, a strict DTD is utilized. Because this feature does not enable CSS properties in the body element, it is used in conjunction with cascading style sheets.
When an XHTML page incorporates frames, the frameset DTD is utilized.
XHTML is a stricter and cleaner version of HTML that needs to follow XML syntax rules. In contrast, HTML is more forgiving and allows for syntax errors.
Yes, XHTML is still in use today, although HTML5 has become more popular in recent years. However, there are still websites that use XHTML, especially those that prioritize website accessibility and maintainability. XHTML helps avoid accessibility problems and is the current recommended markup language, replacing HTML 4. It is also worth noting that XHTML is a reformulation of HTML 4 as an XML 1.0 application, as defined in the Second Edition of XHTML 1.0.
Both HTML5 and XHTML have their advantages and disadvantages. XHTML has a stricter syntax, making it more structured and easier to read. It is also backward compatible, which means it can be viewed on older web browsers. XHTML is still in use today, especially for websites that prioritize accessibility and maintainability.
On the other hand, HTML5 is easier to code, includes multimedia support, and is backward compatible. However, it lacks standardization and may create security vulnerabilities. Additionally, non-semantic HTML tags can negatively impact website accessibility and SEO. It is generally recommended to use semantic HTML tags that describe the content they contain.
Overall, the choice between HTML5 and XHTML depends on the specific needs of your website.